Water saturations (Sw) in conventional oil & gas reservoirs are controlled by capillary pressures. Wireline logs can approximate what Sw may be, but do not actually measure Sw directly. Hence, when it comes to building reservoir models and estimating volumes in-place, capillary pressure based saturation-height models are used to de- scribe Sw.
For unconventional reservoirs, even if capillary pressures are not controlling Sw, saturation-height modelling provides a means to describe Sw variations in reservoirs using property variations.
Note too that CO2 “saturations” in underground Carbon Capture and Se- questration projects are also initially controlled by capillary pressures, enabling likely storage volumes to be estimated using saturation- height modelling techniques.
The course provides best practice guidelines to create meaningful saturation-height functions from capillary pressure measurements and log interpreted Sw. Both drainage and imbibition modelling and the reasons for discrepancies between saturation-height and log- derived water saturations. Will be covered. Implementation of appro- priate models in log interpretation, static and dynamic modelling, unconventionals and carbon capture will be addressed.
Emphasis will be placed on methodologies which can be satisfactorily audited by external technical experts and joint venture partners.
Who Should Attend?
Geologists, Geophysicists, Reservoir & Production Engineers and others involved in formation evaluation and/or reservoir modelling. In particular, people who work with hydrocarbon saturations in their models will find this course of considerable benefit
What Skills Will Participants Gain?
Participants will gain a greater understanding of the processes controlling hydrocarbon distribution in reservoir rocks. The reasons for varying oil-water or gas-water contacts in reservoirs with the same Free Water Levels are just one example of the insights provided by an understanding of capillary pressures.
This course will also provide a step-by-step guide to deciding which capillary pressure measurements to acquire and how to interpret those measurements to yield formulae for use in estimating water saturations independently from wireline log derived water saturations.
Having these formulae for reservoir description provides the foundation for additional investigations that can be carried out using the combination of saturation-height functions, log evaluations, formation pressures and geological configuration. Suitable investigations will be detailed in the latter part of this course, and provide a significant opportunity for participants to improve their understanding of their own Fields and how their hydrocarbon systems may actually be working.
The course is most often supplied as an intensive two day program, although it can also be delivered as a more relaxed 3 day course. Numbers are usually limited to less than 20 people making it possible for the Course Trainer to ensure all participants are following the curriculum.
A detailed training manual is provided to facilitate learning and use of the material - in this case it includes the 2016 Book. The course will alternate between lecturing with Powerpoint Slides and exercises with data from real oil and gas Fields. The exercises are intended to reinforce the ideas and methodologies discussed. MS-Excel will be used for the exercises rather than dedicated Petrophysics software so that the participants understand which algorithms they should use and why.
As with all our courses, this course is fully customisable to suit client requirements.
Available as an in-house course organised for Operators and also as an Open Course at various locations around the world. If you are interested in an Open Course spot, contact us and we will let you know when there is sufficient interest for a course in your area.
Course costs vary depending on location, duration and numbers, but typically range from US$1600-3000 per person.